The solar system is composed of the Sun and the planets that move around it. Here is the succession of the planets starting from the closest to the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the dwarf planet called Pluto. The first four are small and are referred to as terrestrial planet atmospheres because, in comparison to four other planets, they possess rocky surfaces. Venus, Earth and Mars have similarities and differences.
Venus, Earth and Mars have clouds in their atmospheres and experience thermal forces from the Sun. Both Venus and Mars have a large percentage of carbon dioxide of about 95%, as compared to the Earth where nitrogen occupies the largest part of about 78%. Both Venus and Mars do not have protective magnetic fields as in case of the Earth, thus, as their atmospheres come into contact with solar radiation, the particles from their gas layers gain energy and eventually escape from the planets by solar wind and storms, unlike the Earth which is protected by its magnetosphere.
Earth and Mars both have rocky surfaces,mountains and valleys, and storm system. As Earth supports life, Mars is thought to have and may support life because it was believed it was wet and warm, unlike Venus which is thick and extremely hot.
Although, all of them(Venus, Earth and Mars) have water, only the Earth’s oceans and freshwaters can support life, because the Venus’ water vapor is toxic, water is present there in very small amounts, lots of carbon dioxide compose the atmosphere of the planet, it and has no oxygen, and Mars is covered with dust, with high concentration of carbon dioxide and the water on Mars is frozen into ice or snow.
The difference between Venus and Mars comes as a result of differences in the nearness to the Sun: Venus is closer to the Sun, thus, the concentration of the solar energy is intense and the solar wind thins out making the magnetic field strong that results into particles moving collectively like a fluid; unlike Mars which is farther, hence, has weaker field that makes particles move individually. It should be noted that these created magnetic fields are not strong enough to protect them from radiation as in case of the Earth.
Like the Earth, Mars has distinct seasonal weather patterns like dust storms that occur annually, which obscures the surface of the planet from viewing during summer in southern hemisphere. Also, there is a period of cloud formation when ice particles of carbon dioxide condense to form ice cap. Unlike the Earth whose surface has undergone intense changes due to plate motion and erosion leading to small volcanoes, Mars has a stable crust because of limited plate movement.
Venus is thick and full of carbon dioxide gas which brings about the greenhouse effect in this atmosphere that leads to extreme heat conditions. There is also an opaque haze which is composed of tiny particles of sulfates. Scientists argue that they contribute to greenhouse effect. While some argued that Venus had the same amount of carbon dioxide as the Earth, carbon dioxide remained in the rocks, sediments, buried in the Earth, while Venus was hot and dry making carbon dioxide to evaporate from the carbon bearing compounds. This shows that human activities such as industrialization and other economic activities will increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that will result into many problems of global warming and ozone depletion making the life on the Earth impossible, as in the case of Venus.
Mars, on the other hand, is thought to have water which cooled to form ice long time ago and scientists suppose that life was and could be supported there through providing Earth-like atmosphere. This process of engineering the planet to be suitable in supporting life is called terraforming. This can be done by introducing greenhouse gases, like methane and other gases, to trap solar radiation, thus, raising the temperatures and melting the ice. This would make Mars wetter and warmer than before, however, it requires a lot of energy for warming and magnetizing the planet to protect it from solar radiation.
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The planet Earth is capable of balancing the temperature because it contains life and liquids; these conditions enable human beings to survive comfortably in the Earth’s atmosphere. The study on the two planets (Venus and Mars) shows that life cannot be supported there because Venus is too hot while Mars is too cold. In order to support comfortable life conditions for human beings on our planet Earth, some activities which may make the Earth too hot should be controlled. Among such activities are the greenhouses and the emission of excess gases to the atmosphere that affects the ozone layers, The process of industrialization in which several countries in the world are already close to such effects should be carried out very carefully. The wastes which are emitted from the industries should be treated before being released to the atmosphere; this will make the Earth a better place to live.
Human activities are the major causes of climate change which impacts the environment, resulting into environmental degradation. These activities include deforestation, agricultural practices like overstocking, use of strong, non-absorbable fertilizers and chemicals that cause effects to the environment, hence, the atmosphere. This should be taken into consideration to prevent much harm to our Earth, in order to make the atmosphere a good place to live.
Earth is the only planet known to support life at the moment, any harm to it will make it non-conducive for living, thus, human activities should be monitored to avoid excess emission that will lead to global warming, greenhouse effect, and Ozone depletion. Human activities should be balanced all the time, i.e. production and consumption should be in relatively the same amount.
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