This is evaluation of a research about the role of women’s empowerment
and domestic violence in child growth and undernutrition in a tribal and rural community in South India (International Centre for Research in Women). In this research paper, the following terms are used; observational study, interviews, questionnaires, data, survey, sample, variables, presentations, analysis, and segments.
Observational study is where one draws conclusion by examining effects on a control population for certain period. In case of this research paper, the study was carried out in Indian Karnataka, which includes rural and tribal population. This study was realized because it was uncomplicated to use small group, so it was easier to start with known conditions and work towards the unknown conditions. What is more, it was easier to collect real world information, which was useful in formulating hypothesis. The problem of using this study is that it can lead to biasness; this is because the researcher has no control over the population.
Interviews are conversations between two or more people; in this research, interviews are carried out by an interviewer who gets information from a respondent. Interviews may be face to face, they can be accomplished through telephone conversation or appear to be a structured interview. In this research paper, the type of interview which was carried out is structured interview where the interviewer asked the predetermined questions about the topic and the interviewee responded to these questions. This method is useful since the questions asked are standardized, many respondents can be easily reached, and it also gives an interviewer an opportunity to clear any ambiguity which may rise from the question, hence, provide reliable information. The disadvantage of this method is that it requires a lot of time if the sample is big; moreover, the interviewer can influence the respondent and the respondent is obliged to answer only asked questions, and it limits the scope of the research.
This is a source of collecting information during a research process. It includes a list of questions which are asked by a researcher, as well as instructions which must be clear to understand. This method should be used when one requires quantitative information because questionnaire tends to cover a large population. It also proves to be time-saving and convenient in that respondents can fill questionnaire at a favorable time, for example, when using postal questionnaire. The problem with questionnaire is that there is no control of the people who fill the questionnaire. This may lead to biasness, and the refusal rate may be high as people may refuse to fill the questionnaire. Furthermore, it is expensive in terms of telephone, postal or specific trips in order to get the respondent. It is evident that people may not be honest while filling the questionnaire.
Data is a set of qualitative or quantitative values that belong to the same set of items. Field data includes raw data that was gathered from the peculiar data field before it is had been processed. It can be processed and presented by charts, graphs, and tables. In this research, data was collected and processed with help of tables and figures, charts and graphs.
This is a method of collecting data from a sample which represents a certain population. It is mostly used when collecting quantitative information about the population. The sample selected tends to present the interest of the whole group. This method is useful in the following ways; it takes short time to collect and analyses the data compared to qualitative data. It can be carried out by telephone, mail and interpersonally, so many people can be contacted within a short period of time. This method can be standardized, which will reduce biasness. The disadvantage of using this method is that it requires specialized skills in terms of statistical competency during sampling, analyzing and presenting the data. Moreover, the realization of this method may be expensive (Conducting Survey Research 1999).
This may include observations during research which have different values. Variables are important during the processes of analysis since they help us in making hypothesis and conclusions. There are two types of variables which include dependent and independent variables.
Independent variable has an effect on the dependent variable, which usually changes according to the effect of independent variable ( Dr. Margarida Southard 2006).
Data collected from the given sample consists in analyses presented in order to make a conclusion about the subject. Data must be presented in a manner that is easy to understand and interpret. The data can be presented by use of graphs, table and charts. In the research paper given, data is presented with help of table and graphs. The method of presenting data depends whether the data given is qualitative or quantitative. For example, quantitative data can be presented by pie charts while qualitative can be presented by line graphs
After data has been collected, it needs to be analyzed in order to draw conclusion. There are several processes involved when analyzing the data. Firstly, the data is prepared by cleaning to select accurate data and properly organize it. Secondly, the data is described by its main features and summaries; and finally, the data is tested and the hypothesis is formulated due to the usage of information about the subject (William M.K Torochim 2008).
This is a way of analyzing the results about the topic in order to give one the opportunity to unravel the relationship between the research and the topic. If there are new ideas discovered, they need to be discussed. Findings also help in drawing conclusions about the topic. In this investigation, the findings helped to elucidate the relationship between women’s empowerment, domestic violence and undernutrition.
The research was carried out in Mysore region of Karnataka in India which is one of the rural areas to identify the role of women empowerment and the effects of domestic violence on child growth and under nutrition in tribal and rural communities in south India. In this research, different methods were used to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. These methods include study population, survey design, anthropometry method, sampling methods, statistical method, and research ethics.
This method was carried out in two phases; the first phase was put through using qualitative method, and second phase was accomplished by quantitative one. The population identified included scheduled caste, backward caste and one scheduled tribe. Two tribes were selected in order to carry out this investigation. One tribe had better conditions for empowering women while the other one did not have these conditions. This enables the research to see the different effects empowering women had on one tribe compared to another, which did not empower women.
Study population has the following advantages; it is not subjected to biasness as the entire population is engaged, the information gathered is accurate and reliable since the researcher is involved with the population; and finally, it is easy to carry out since it does not require statistical skills and techniques. The disadvantages of this method are that it is time-consuming and expensive to fulfill since the population is big.
In this method, questionnaires were designed to collect qualitative data about the difference between tribal and rural communities in terms of women’s empowerment. The questionnaire had inquiries regarding the role of female empowerment and household decision-making process. The interviewers were trained and the questionnaire was translated for easy understanding by local people. The advantage of using questionnaire is that a lot of information is gathered at the same time. Hence, it saves time and it is easy to carry out since few people are needed to give out the questionnaires. Questionnaires can be sent to people by postal means, which gives the interviewees the pleasure to fill the questionnaire at their convenient time. The disadvantage is that the meaning may be distorted during translation and lead to biasness. Some interviewees may fail to fill the questionnaire, and there is definitely no control over who fills the questionnaire.
Anthropometry method refers to the process of following up the enrolled samples for monitoring purpose. In this research paper, children were enrolled between the ages of 6-24 months, and were followed up after 6 months. Their measurements were also taken at this follow-up. The advantages of this method are that it helps to monitor changes, and the causes may be detected during this follow-up. This method is reliable because the study is continuous and the researcher is involved. The disadvantage of this method is that it is too expensive and longstanding.
A section of population was selected by a random cluster sample to identify those who were to fill the questionnaire and give information during the interviews. Sampling enables to collect information from a part of the group, so that it will represent the entire group. The advantage of these methods is that it does not require a lot of time since a few chosen people represent the entire population. Moreover, it is not expensive since there is no need to interview the whole population. This method is reliable since the information gathered represents the entire population. The disadvantages consist in the fact that it is difficult to identify a suitable and reliable sample, and it requires statistical skills in terms of sampling techniques to determine the suitable sample.
Statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data and make a hypothesis. Different methods of analysis were used, including descriptive analysis, factor analysis and regression analysis, which were conducted together with statistical packages.
While conducting the research, the investigator must put in mind ethical requirement before, during and after the research process. The following are the ethical requirements which should be followed. Firstly, there is a principle of beneficence which requires to ensure that there is no harm caused to others, especially to the respondents while conducting the research. Secondly, there is the principle of human dignity where the researcher has to respect the decision of the respondents. The respondents should not be forced to give information about a certain topic, therefore, the researcher should give the respondents the freedom to choose which questions they feel comfortable to answer. Thirdly, there is the principle of justices where the researcher should respect the belief, tradition and culture of the respondents. People under investigation have to be treated fairly and given an opportunity to give their views, and the information they provide should be treated with high level of confidentiality.
The respondents should also be informed about the research and the implications on them before they are asked to respond to the questionnaire. If these stipulations are carried out, the investigator will be able to print the research paper. Finally, the researcher should try as much as possible not to commit scientific fraud and not to falsify information. All the information collected should be true, and scientific procedure should follow all the requirements.
The research paper suggests that there is a strong relationship between women empowerment, child malnutrition and gender inequality. The study shows that domestic violence is associated with malnutrition to some extent. The findings also suggest that in order to reduce undernutrition, health and nutrition programs should be carried out in developing countries to enable good feeding programs for children, and health behaviors should be practiced. The government should provide proper health services to its people in order to reduce undernutrition in their countries. According to the findings, gender inequality and lack of women’s empowerment are more associated with domestic violence. Thus, government should work towards empowering women to protect them. In order to reduce malnutrition, the government should ensure that the food insecurity is adequately addressed by providing information on agricultural activities. This research makes emphasis on health issue since it suggests that we should start by addressing the problem of female empowerment and provide different ways in which women should be empowered. Domestic violence and gender inequality should be prevented as well. All these factors will improve health services since domestic violence is associated with malnutrition, and if this problem is resolved, nutrition will get better.
In accordance with the results, it is evident the research has addressed different significant issues, and all the necessary requirements of writing a research paper have been followed. The recommendations given should be taken into consideration in order to improve women empowerment, which will in turn help to develop healthy nutrition in South India.