Public Health Behavior

public health behavior

Introduction

The modern medical science focuses not only at the development and enhancement of the course of treatment of every particular disease but also at the qualitative improvement of the preventive measures. The miscellaneous attitudes to the preventive approaches may be considered to be the major concern that requires to set the goals and to make interventions which are culturally sensitive and ethnically appropriate. These aspects have been adhered to in the course of the present healthcare intervention.

The given intervention deals with the course of prevention of the spread of the human papilloma virus (HPV). In order to develop a relevant and perspective intervention, it is necessary to involve potentially efficient healthcare theories. Several health behavior theories have been chosen for this purpose, namely, the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and the health belief model (HBM). The latter one aims to assess the need for the HPV vaccine among the target male and female audience. The significance of the health behavioral theory within the area of the health care practice is crucial since it enhances the efficiency of the health promotion and contributes to the actual improvement of the health conditions of numerous patients. Therefore, it is essential to set the goals properly and develop such an intervention that will correspond to the main criteria of the prevention measures. Actually, health behavior should be formed on the basis of a multidisciplinary approach. The major emphasis should be made on social, cultural, and environmental aspects.  Moreover, it is crucial to establish positive relationship between patients and health care stakeholders as far as such method contributes to the creation of positive health behavior and, as a result, helps patients to resist their diseases.

The purpose of the given paper is to introduce the intervention targeted to improve the prevention of the HPV spread, justify it and discuss the major goals within the area of intervention.

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Discussion

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is regarded as one of the most common agents for sexually transmitted diseases (STDS). Hence, its prevention is even more important than treatment, since the majority of the contemporary people is sexually active, and, therefore, is directly under the risk. The prevalence of HPV is very high in sexually active individuals, and its effects are heightened due to its silent infection that lowers the initiatives for timely medical intervention (Krishnan, 2008). The question of the human papilloma virus control may be actualized by means of such measures as the administration of vaccines, including Cervix and Gardasil. The issuance of the aforementioned vaccines occurs over a six-month period in terms of the three shot series. Furthermore, the vaccines are expected to prevent such types of cancer as cervical, penile, and vulvar one. However, the vaccines’ effectiveness is drawn back by their adverse effects that include dizziness, headaches, nausea, syncope, and even probable fatalities (Wailoo, 2010). According to Krishnan (2008), the statistics in the United States demonstrates the following tendency: there are approximately 24 million cases of HPV, which are considered to be caused as a result of the limited knowledge about the virus.

The health behavior theories incorporated in the currently discussed intervention, namely, TRA, TPB, and HBM, are relevant and potentially efficient in the given context. The theory of reasoned action is based on the conception according to which people’s perception and attitude to HPV vaccines as a social support mechanism appears to be the determinant of the underlying motive to accept vaccination. The theory of planned behavior regards the determinant of success of the currently discussed kind of vaccination as the one that is formed due to people’s attitudes towards the vaccine, the overall perception on the vaccination’s social support mechanism and the perceived tolerance to be administered with the vaccine as Hayden (2013) underlines. Finally, the health belief models tend to provide an excellent opportunity to predict the potential of the engagement into a specific health programs for the effective prevention and early detection of infections such as human papilloma virus. To be more precise, the given medical intervention is considered to be efficient and perspective provided that there are constructive cues to proper actions as well as persuasive appeals to inculcate increased acceptance to vaccination.

There are three goals of the major significance in terms of the given intervention. Every goal is detailed using more precise and clearly cut objectives. Moreover, every goal is aimed at the completion of the intervention development. It means that they are interconnected and predetermine each other to a particular extent. The first goal is to provide the proper educational process for the target audience covering such area of knowledge as the prevalence of HPV and its associated repercussions in a culturally sensitive manner and age-appropriate manner. The main task that should be completed within this goal is to augment public awareness on the HPV regarding its infection channels, risks to infection, and the adverse impacts it extended to the victims. Along with such, a positive outcome of the given initiative is expected to be the decrease of the resistance level to health intervention measures, and in such a way the provision of control of the spread of the virus will be provided. The inherent objectives include:

Objective 1.1: to increase the public awareness regarding the issue in question throughout the United States. The target audience is sexually active people, both infected and uninfected.

Objective 1.2: to educate the target audience about the risks and problems connected with the HPV.

The second goal is to provide a constructive and relevant educational course oriented for both adults and adolescents concerning the importance of vaccination. It is crucial to take this aspect into consideration.

Objective 2.1: to augment the level of public awareness about the HPV immunization and its effectiveness/benefits in order to decrease the rates of vaccination resistance.

Objective 2.2: to minimize the disparities connected with the vaccination which are based on the aspect of race.

Objective 2.3: to increase the quantity of health centers, which provide counseling and immunization against HPV. The given objective should be actualized in the areas which are characterized by poor access to health care services. Such an effect should be achieved via collaborating with corporate, academic and religious organizations.

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The third goal is to decrease negative repercussions of HPV infection. The diversity of tasks within this goal is embodied in the main objectives.

Objective 3.1: to enforce strong vaccination prerequisites for high school entry. It is crucial to provide this enhancement for all patients regardless their culture and race.

Objective 3.2: to guarantee that insurance plans cover the treatment of HPV infections.

Objective 3.3: to augment HPV immunization rates for adolescent males and females that are in the age groups between 13-17 years. This objective should be actualized by means of raising the quantity of HPV vaccine providers across cultural, racial, and age subgroups of the target audience.

It is significant to take into consideration the diversity of the aforementioned target audience and multicultural perspectives which will be of serious impact while applying the given intervention into practice. First, it is essential to take into account the particular aspects of ethics, lifestyle and religious beliefs when a patient belongs to the minority group in terms of culture, ethnicity, religion, etc. Second, it is recommended to align evidence-based practice with cultural and racial peculiarities. Third, it is also crucial to identify and address barriers that may stand in the way of executing interventions and achieving predetermined goals and objectives.

It is crucial to underline that the given alterations and innovations, which are provided in terms of the proposed goals and objectives, are of exceptional significance and should be implemented in practice as far as they will contribute to the following aspects  of the issue in question:

  • increase of the HPV prevention program effectiveness;
  • reduction of the HPV infection rates;
  • enhancement of the usefulness of educational intervention;
  • elimination of culture-based and race-based disparities in access to health care services;
  • reduction of cultural barriers, stereotypes, and biases in delivery of health care services and executing preventive and educational interventions (Smith, 2013; Truong, Paradies, & Priest, 2014; Douglas et al., 2014).

The reason to implement recommended changes, which consider diversity and multicultural perspectives, is to more effectively address issues related to health behaviors of the target population. Finally, the strategy for implementing aforementioned changes rests on educating healthcare professionals on the importance of cultural competence and awareness of multicultural perspectives.

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Conclusion

The significance of the given intervention is based on the urgent necessity to improve the preventive measures of HPV in general and to increase the overall awareness among the target audience, namely, sexually active males and females. It is crucial to provide the aforementioned interventions and initiatives with the regard to the cultural, racial, ethnical and religious peculiarities of the target audience. Moreover, it is important to put an emphasis on such aspects of the educational process concerning human papilloma virus as vaccination, immunization, risks and challenges.

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