Negotiation is the act of conversing to reach an agreement. Negotiation is a daily activity and needs relevant and adequate preparation because failing to plan is planning to fail.
When planning for negotiation, first it is necessary to understand the issues. Then, one must identify and realize own needs and concerns with the available resources, consider strengths and weaknesses of the other party by gathering information. It is also necessary to know how to start negotiations, what to achieve at the end and list in order of priorities from the most essential to the less important. Priorities are best identified by realistic objectives to convince the other party to negotiate. One should prepare starting point proposal by analyzing own objectives and priorities. This must be easy to understand in order the other party has interest and tables more reasonable offers. It is important to have adequate and objective data to support the proposal.
To plan for conclusion of the deal, one should prepare the agenda by evaluating the expectation, attitude and values. This will help to highlight or hide the motives in order to reach concession. For compromise, it is necessary to analyze the consequences and harm it may cause to own interests. Therefore, one should plan for possible limits to protect these interests.
Place and time of negotiation must be also considered. If it takes place at one’s workplace, the person has psychological advantage because he can access necessary information and authority. If negotiation is held at the office of the other party, there is minimal distraction and interruption, thus one may decide to meet at neutral place considering all venues. It is necessary to identify the negotiating team, their specific roles based on their skills, the negotiation terms and general behavior during the process. There must be possible alternatives prepared in advance if negotiation fails, so that one does not focus on the negotiation which does not bring positive results.
Preparation for negotiation means that a person actualizes and visualizes it. Therefore, it must be prepared effectively to remove any obstacle or constraint, with enough resources and time well used to achieve the set objectives in order of priority. Above all, good relationship between parties must be maintained.