Suicide is getting more and more attention worldwide day by day. According to the World Health Organization, nearly one million people die from suicide every year, or a person dies every 40 seconds. Moreover, the rates of suicide have increased in the last 45 years by 60 percent worldwide. It is a leading cause of death in some countries. The group of highest risk is young people, aged 15-44, especially males.
The risk factors for suicide include mental illnesses, such as depression, violence, alcohol abuse, financial problems. Among other mental disorders are schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, drug abuse and social background.
Nowadays it is a challenge for countries and world health care organizations to prevent suicides. A number of strategies implies care about population’s mental health, increased attention to risk groups, restriction of access to the means of suicide, improved access to social services and identification of people, suffering from suicide and help to him or her to cope with the problem.
In the research are analyzed the main three studies, which are found out to be the most effective. The research in different countries such as India, Denmark and in different age groups are drawn in order to realize the link between the density, economic welfare and the quality of medical servise.
According to Rohit Garg, J.K. Trivedi and Mohan Dhyani, “Suicide is a fatal self-inflicted destructive act with explicit or inferred intent to die” (2007). Suicidal behavior depends on many aspects of personality. The solving of this global problem is complicated as there are difficulties in diagnosing, treatment and support of people, who intend to commit suicide.
In India, more than 100.000 lives are lost every year. The risk group is younger than 44 years old, especially males, though women die from suicide more often than in other countries. High rate may be understood as a reaction on serious social and economic problems of Indian society. But recent studies prove, that the real rate of suicide is nine times higher than official rate, because the registration system is not operative enough. The chosen method of suicide reflects personal characteristics, cultural and traditional values, seriousness of situation and motives. The most popular acts to end one’s life in the South India are hanging and posing.
Suicide of elderly is determined by psychiatric illnesses, neurotism, isolation, poor health and financial problems. Elder people often live alone, their signs are not sensed, they often have depressions. These lead to death from drug abuse of people over 67.7 years old. The problem is some people, including medical workers, suppose that suicide among old people is absolutely rational, deliberated, reasonable and must not be prevented. Some people think that elderly people, who want to end their life do not need attention, and their choise is right philosophical decision, though it has not been proved yet. These may be prevented by providing care to old people, improving of community medical services, treating of depressions and other psychical disorders.
Womens’ suicide is caused by psychiatric disorders, depressions, status of divorced or widowed, suspectible to violence, child’s death and suicide among family members. Women’s suicide rate may be reduced by pregnance, marriage, employment in traditional jobs.
Males commit suicide more often than women do, though the number of attempts is equal. Males use more serious methods of suicide, they are less protected by government and they do not use health services as often as women.
Children suicide behavior is motivated by attracting parent’s attention, distracting the family from other issues, absence love and care among family members. These factors may be precluded by careful observing of children’s psychical health by social workers, noticing direct and indirect signs, effective clinical care and attentive attitude towards them by adults.
A self-preservative instinct is inherent in every creature, especially human. A desire to die must be examined as a declination of normal behavior and psychological condition. According to Nordentoft (2007), in 1980 the suicide rate in Denmark was among the highest in Europe. Though it has declined, nowadays the suicide rate is still the highest among the Scandinavian and Western Europe countries.
In general, the goal of suicide prevention is to save the person from a despaired condition, when suicide is highly contagious. The person must be provided with careful treatment and medical intervention. It is important to remove the influence of impulse in suicide prevention. Well-timed help may be a decisive factor for a person, who wants to end her or his life. Individual may reconsider the values, actions and realize, that death is not a key to solving a problem. Every attempt of suicide or committed suicide must be reported to the police. People, who suffered from an attempt of suicide, or whose family members ended their life must be given professional medical care and required treatment.
Promptly, the suicide prevention may be divided into three stages: primary, secondary and tertiary. A common model of disease prevention is to split preventive measures into primary, secondary and tertiary measures.
Primary prevention is aimed at individuals who have not yet shown any signs of illness. The aim is to prevent the disease process from starting. Immunization campaigns, seat belts, and learning a healthy lifestyle during upbringing are examples of primary prevention. Secondary prevention targets individuals who have had subtle signs of the start of a disease process. The aim of secondary prevention is to start treatment during the early stages of the disease process. Most screening programmes are based on secondary prevention. Tertiary prevention targets individuals who have a diagnosed disease, who need treatment and support to prevent complications from the disease. This includes monitoring the disease, relapse prevention and follow-up programmes.
Common model of disease prevention is to split preventive measures into primary, secondary and tertiary measures. Primary prevention is aimed at individuals who have not yet shown any signs of illness. The aim is to prevent the disease process from starting. Immunization campaigns, seat belts, and learning a healthy lifestyle during upbringing are examples of primary prevention. Secondary prevention targets individuals who have had subtle signs of the start of a disease process.
The aim of secondary prevention is to start treatment during the early stages of the disease process. Most programmes are based on secondary prevention. Tertiary prevention targets individuals who have a diagnosed disease and who need treatment and support to prevent complications from the disease. This includes monitoring the disease, relapse prevention, follow-up programmes.