Mental Health, Depression and Suicide

Depression and Suicide

Introduction

Depression is a state of mind that can affect an individual’s thoughts, personal life, and behavior. Medical scientists and psychologists consider it as a mental health problem (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015). Hence, a patient may feel sad, helplessness, and anxious due to depression. Moreover, in severe stage, a patient may commit self-destruction. Studies show that currently suicide is an important issue in the Western world (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015). In some situations, people may face challenges to control their emotions due to their depressed mood. As a result, the person may cause his or her own death. This activity is considered as suicide. Medical experts believe that different personal disorders, drug abuse, and psychological problems may cause  an individual to commit suicide. The scientists analyzed various signs, symptoms, and risk factors that can entail depression (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015). Also, they designed evidence-based guidelines that help a nursing team to control the patients’ mental conditions. The following paper illustrates the statics, sign, symptoms, and various aspects of depression.

Statistics

Depression and suicide are the major psychological problems that kill more than 1 million of people every year (WHO, 2015). The World Health Organization (WHO) recorded that in 2012 over 800 thousand people commit suicides all over the world. Also, experts noticed that suicide rate has rapidly increased in the last five years. Besides, suicide is a major cause of death in the United States. A report shows that 30,000 to 35,000 U.S. citizens kill themselves annually (WHO, 2015). The WHO experts explain that sometimes people try to commit suicide, but they cannot. However, this incident may make them invalid or physically handicapped for the rest of their life. Also, in some situations, people register suicide incident as accident to hide the actual event. Thus, such actions may create dilemmas to find the main reasons or factors of this crisis (WHO, 2015).

Signs and Symptoms

The U.S. nursing experts conducted various evidence-based studies to identify the signs and symptoms of depression and suicide. Studies show that different psychological disorders may bear the signs and symptoms of depression (University of Michigan Depression Center, n.d.). For example, moral dilemma, emotional issues, cognitive syndromes, and different clinical perspectives may initiate inadequate behavior. Nursing experts found various evidence-based signs and symptoms of depression. Furthermore, different characteristics are visible on a patient who suffers from a psychological problem or wants to commit suicide. Initially, a person may suffer from stress for a long time. He or she may not communicate with people or avoid social life. Also, the patients may create an inadequate feeling about their ability and self-esteem. Sometimes, these patients may stop their regular works due to anxiety. These mental conditions affect a person’s physique. Therefore, the patient may lose weight in a short time. Nevertheless, depression may make a patient physically weak and ill. Thus, these signs and symptoms show that a patient is suffering from depression (University of Michigan Depression Center, n.d.).

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Stages or Types of Depression

The medical experts divided depression crisis into different stages to analyze its emotional and clinical perspectives. Also, some psychologists proved that the primary reason of committing suicide is depression. Nursing experts address depression problems in various ways by investigating the patients’ mood, behavior, and health issues. First of all, psychologists believe that emotional syndrome may make an individual sad and depressed. This syndrome may initiate due to the loneliness, failure, sadness, and different tragic events. In this stage, a person may lose interest in his or her life and work experiences (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015). Secondly, the experts found that cognitive symptoms may also cause depression. These issues relate to an individual’s psychological condition. For example, a person may decide to destroy his or her life due to the low self-esteem. Also, this stage may affect a patient’s way of thinking and judging different situations (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015). Thirdly, a person may create motivational symptoms due to his or her depressed company. Sometimes, people may spend time with friends who are pessimistic about their lives. As a result, such company may cause severe mental effects to the patients. Fourthly, the somatic symptom may cause biological effects on a patient’s health. It can entail insomnia, digestive problems, loss of appetite, etc. In the end, a patient may commit suicide to get relief from these health issues and mental dilemmas (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015).

Risk Factors

Depression and suicide may have several risk factors. First of all, a family member’s depression may affect the whole family. As a result, it can cause mass destruction and financial problems to a family. Also, if a person commits suicide, then his or her family members may suffer from psychological stress for a long time. Depression may initiate alcoholism and drug addiction. A patient may rapidly use harmful drugs to reduce mental anxiety. Besides, depression can make a person aggressive and intolerant. It can make an individual isolate from society, community, and family. Experts believe that depression may increase the chance of different physical problems and illnesses, such as obesity, weight loss, and fever (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015).

Diagnostic Criteria and Nursing Assessment

The medical experts use nursing theories and evidence-based guidelines to diagnose and control depression and suicidal attempts. Often, persistent dysphoria, anhedonia, and somatic symptom diagnosis process help nursing teams to analyze depression. Nurses apply screening processes to investigate the patients’ mental state. They ask the patients different questions which help them diagnose their condition. For example, if the patient feels depressed for a long time he or she is sad due to a specific event etc. On the other hand, clinical experts perform blood and nervous system diagnosis tests to analyze the main health effects of depression. However, recent studies show that nursing care, conversation, and oral therapies are more effective than clinical treatments in this diagnosis process (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015). Therefore, the doctors and psychologists organize personal interviews and conversation events with patients to understand their mental issues. Usually, the experts diagnose the patients for a certain time. Often, patients live in nursing homes for a particular period to get relief from this problem. During the diagnosis process, the nursing team encourages patients to identify the positive aspects of life. Also, they analyze certain situations or events that make a patient stressed or anxious. The nursing experts discuss the patients’ problems and help them to control their emotions. Additionally, if the patient suffers from physical problems due to depression, the doctors use traditional medication and therapies to reduce their illness (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015).

Interventions

Medical organizations often apply non-pharmacological intervention methods to control and reduce depression. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) experts consider that in case of depression, psychological healing processes and therapies are more effective than pharmacological procedures (CDC, 2015). The nursing expert, Janice Pazar (2001) claims that triage assessment system (TAS) is an effective depression intervention process. TAS analyzes crisis reactions in three ways. They are affective, behavioral, and cognitive research (Pazar, 2001). First of all, the assessment of affective domain studies the causes and effects of primary reactions. For example, it determines if the patient sufferes from severe anxiety, fear, stress, and aggression. Secondly, the behavioral reactions study the patients’ negative emotions. Often, these patients may think of themselves as losers (CDC, 2015). Therefore, in such situations, nursing assistance encourage patients to see the positive sides of their lives. Thirdly, the cognitive reactions analyze the patients’ perception to a specific situation or event. Furthermore, the triage system rates the severity of these crises by using a scale of 1 to 10 (Pazar, 2001). The overall TAS scores may count in between 3 to 30. These processes help nursing experts to understand the severity of this problem. Also, the nursing staff guides patients in changing their lifestyles and their way of thinking. On the contrary, the pharmacological experts use antidepressant drugs and clinical therapies to reduce and individual’s stress and anxiety. They apply effective clinical processes to control physical, substance abuse, and mental disorders. For instance, antidepressant medications including Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) help patients to control their stress (Pazar, 2001). Thus, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological depression intervention procedures help patients to reduce their psychological problems.

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Depression Management Methods

Studies show that depression and suicidal thoughts often attack patients when they suffer from bullying, loneliness, and other social problems. Therefore, a patient’s family and relatives should help him or her to get relief from this crisis. They should ask for help from psychologists and medical professionals to change the patient’s day-to-day life. Sometimes, an individual may continue his or her unsatisfied life for a long time. As a result, he or she may develop serious trauma or stress. Hence, in such situations, patients’ families should help him or her to change work, life, and the surrounding environment. Moreover, nursing teams offer behavioral therapies to the patients who suffer from depression due to the drug and alcohol addiction. These treatments help patients to control their emotions and suicidal thoughts (Illiades & Marcellin, 2015).

Conclusion

In conclusion, depression and suicidal thoughts kill millions of people every year. A patient may develop stress or anxiety due to his or her personal life, loneliness, low self-esteem, and failures. In severe stage, these conditions may lead a person to commit suicide. Therefore, in such situations patients should take help from nursing experts and psychologists. These scholars use pharmacological and non-pharmacological procedures to control depression. The nursing homes offer depression control therapies and treatments for a certain period. As a result, a person can improve life by reforming his or her thoughts.

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