Town governments represent the delivery point for most governmental services and stand for the administration level most accessible and common for the citizens. Resident states use home rule to regulate the value of life in communities and provide direct services to the people. Town government, therefore, acts as a full partner with the state in the mutual responsibility of service delivery to the citizens. Budget represent a significant tool used to achieve policy objectives and improve service delivery. The role of town governments is the implementation of the budget in the most efficient way. The operating and capital budgets, expenditures and revenues must be analyzed for achieving this goal. A real town government budget becomes all-inclusive, foreseeable, transparent, contestable, and efficient among others. The mission of the town government budgeting process aims at helping verdict makers create informed choices about the provision of services, capital assets and ensuring stakeholders’ participation in the process gets enhanced. The challenges encountered during budget development, approval, and implementation process have given rise to the ways of solving the challenges and improving the process. The proposed town government budget should keep people on the track of providing a safe community, and offering elementary and secondary services. The budget review should detail various factors like strategic planning and financial planning. Limitations of planning in terms of resource allocation ought to get considered, too. Linking policy priorities with budgetary allocations becomes vital in town government budget successful implementation. The task becomes ensuring the budget adequately reflects the government’s policies and priorities. Town government reforms on accounts represent result-oriented approach. The current paper overviews and analyzed the budget adopted by the town government.
The budget can be defined as a fiscal plan that outlines the primary sources of income and how the revenue raised gets used or shared among competing needs. On a national level, the financial plan shows the government’s approach to mobilizing funds and how it intends to use the revenue raised to finance the various competing needs for the benefits of its citizens.
The town government budget procedure contains activities that incorporate development, application, and plan evaluation for the provision of services and capital resources. The budget enshrines both political and managerial features. The aspects ensure responsibility in reporting and accounting for the delivery of services and use of resources. The sequential developments commence with budget planning and preparation. Preliminary revenue projections get used in creating the basis for the upcoming budget. Revenue gets subdivided, and departments begin to submit service bids addressing town government’s goals. The next process involves budget review. Revision of the budget follows when proposed amendments get availed to the proposed budget. Amendments should balance with revenue or spending changes. A majority straw vote determines the fate of the bill of the final budget. Accepting the budget takes place on the council’s first reading. By the mid of the budget year, the council adopts the upcoming year operating, capital, grants, and trusts budgets on the second reading. Approved amendments get embraced during this adoption. The final budget document gets developed by a town government budget officer working with other town officials. The town government budget process follows an individual calendar that varies occasionally. The difference arises due to government’s fiscal year and the time needed to collect information from departmental heads.
Town government operating budget constitutes a plan of current or annual spending and the means to pay for it like taxes and fees among others. Rural administrations operating budgets cover a fiscal year where the beginning and end dates vary from government to government. A town government operating budget not only represents a financial plan but also becomes a binding legal document once adopted by the governing board.
A town government capital budget entails long-term spending for asset acquisition and the means of paying them including borrowing. The capital budget reflects anticipated expenditures on basic of infrastructure projects that get a useful life that extends to the future. On many occasions, capital budgets get funded at least partially from one-time resources. Nonetheless, the budget process entails maintenance or replacement of capital apparatus and amenities.
Capital expenses represent the expenditures sustained after the purchase of possessions. Operational costs get incurred after unchanging spending like employees payments. The expenses get termed as ongoing rather than one-time. Urban governments bear capital costs through the provision of public services and amenities, treatment plants and pipelines to the residents of their area of the control. Township governments get funded by the taxpayers through collecting of taxes and get involved in town planning, infrastructure, and social amenities. Capital expenses get based mostly on long term funding. The loss may include funding a project aimed at buying expensive machinery or construction of a public facility. To get the financing on the set goals they operate according to the budget plan that shows their spending and for the acquisition of assets.
Town government gets its funds from many sources. It collects obligatory payments in the form of taxes and utilizes the money to fund its operations and projects. The largest portion of public revenue comprises of taxes that get categorized into direct and indirect taxes. Investment income remains a source of public revenue that includes dividends paid by governments and other corporations where the government continues to be a shareholder. A large share of this income comes from loan interests and repayments. Borrowing and grants stand as another source of funds for the town governments. Other sources of funds may include liquor licenses and cemetery fees.
Budget development, approval, and the application have its shortcomings. The sitting government uses the budget to deliver its political agenda that may lead to slanted resource distribution. Inadequate spending estimates develop if the budget does not correctly determine the cost of periodic and predictable spending needs. When the expenses occur, unintended expenditure is cut, borrowing, and usage of trust equilibrium might arise. Inconclusive budget often leads to financial glitches.
Repetitive use of fund balance often leads to using accrued fund balance to cover unanticipated deficits in revenues or occasional excess expenses. Intentionally local government may budget for the use of fund balance when the amount becomes superfluous and needs repatriation to the taxpayer. Continuous use of fund balances to cover revenue deficits for a long time becomes a clear sign of a structural problem. Failure to monitor capital program enactment leads to such problems like delays in key milestones and cost overruns. Forecasting of sharp turns in local economies becomes a problem resulting in actual outcome becoming different from projections.
A large increase in amenity cost causes substantial dislocation in other budgets and puts a great deal of pressure on officials to spend down reserves. Failure to monitor the revenues and expenditures results in the budget not meeting its objective. Calculated and complete condition assessments for existing capital facilities as well as robust predictions for future needs remain a significant budget problem.
Outflow is another budget shortcoming resulting from exploitation where altering the employment roles and paying less than the minimum wage take place. Difficulties in making accurate macroeconomic projections appear due to exposure to external shocks and dependence on irregular revenue systems and aid flow. Lack of independence from the political control of the audit function remains another shortcoming. Scarce information on social and economic trends and conditions leads to a lack of accurate budget data. Lack of information and access to practical skills weakens the legislature ability to hold the executive accountable.
These budgets must be distinguished. The budget core aims, services, and facilities should get clearly defined and should focus on priorities it can afford to fund. The plan should also reject unsustainable programs and maintain its facilities including buildings.
The town government should cut capital expenditures and refuse the costly strategy. Training its employees is necessary as local governments stand in the service business and personal costs get much of their budgets. Poorly trained employees cost money therefore training them saves it. Directing staff, where to make cuts should get avoided, instead targets must be offered and personnel should be let make the cuts itself. Town government should avoid deferring conservation of equipment and amenities as they often cost more money in the long run. Freezing signing for vacant positions becomes one of the most counterproductive policies, too, as some areas remain drier than others.
In summary, the budget proposed by town government consists of an expense budget for all town expenditures. These budgets must include both operating and capital funding and their costs. Operating expenses are ongoing rather than one time, they include wages, salaries and benefits. Capital expenses are those involving acquisition or constructing of physical assets. Various funds exist in town budget to enhance effective allocation to conversed projects. Town budget must clearly show actual revenues and expenditures completed in the last fiscal year. Estimated total revenues and expenditures for the current fiscal year should be clearly laid out. The budget message should be informative addressing major issues including public concerns and overall mission statement should be indicated.