1. Immigration Act of 1924: in the year 1924, the government of the USA made this act that essentially limited the amount of people who could immigrate in the country from other ones. There were no limitation for wives and children of the American people who were living at those times on the territory of the USA. The aim of this particular American federal law was to reduce the amount of Jews who formed a great part of immigrants at that moment.
  2. Chinese Six Companies: this formation is also known as Chinese Consolidation Benevolent Association. In the 19th century, it was the key group of Chinese Americans that consisted of district communities. Its aim was to make communities cooperate in a sufficient way to protect their own national identity. This foundation was small, but in a very short period of time it has become a very strong foundation, which is nowadays well-known all over the world.
  3. 1790 Naturalization Law: this act limited getting the American national status for non-native people. The government of the country demanded of immigrants to spend much time living without national status in order to feel and understand the American culture.
  4. Chinese Exclusion Act: this Act was signed in 1882 and it contained in itself a very strong immigrant restriction in the USA. This especially concerned Chinese immigrants. This law made impossible for this nation to immigrate to the USA for log ten years. In practice, the Chinese immigration has become illegal.
  5. “Paper Sons”: this very term names Chinese immigrants that have settled in the USA before the year 1944. They claimed to be sons of citizens, but appeared to be only paper sons. It meant that they used some documents that were bought in order to stay in the country.
  6. The Oxnard Strike of 1903: this historic event was a turning point in the American labor movement. This was for the first time in the world history when a lot of various nations were not diffused, but coalesced for reaching a shared goal – form a labor organization. Their members overcame the language misunderstanding, elected their leader and began working for their good.
  7. Executive Order 9066: this was the order of the US President that was signed in 1942 during the Second World War. This document saw the light after a terrible Pearl Harbor attack.
  8. The Irish and Democratic Party: the Irish were welcomed in the country in the 19th century because it was necessary to have their support. The Irish nation was considered to be the white, so they played a big role in gaining the common rights. This tendency one can see even nowadays because a huge number of Irish are supporters of the Democratic Party.

A: Jews in New York.

B: Japanese in Hawaii

  1. Be sure to compare and contrast the phases of the migration processes with an emphasis upon the latter two: origins, flows, economic incorporation settlement, and socio-political adaption.
  2. Describe the role of race and ethnicity in their respective economic incorporation, settlement adaptation, and situation of the American-born second generation.

So different and so similar – Jews in New York and Japanese in Hawaii

Immigration is a specific process in our world when a huge group of people decides to leave their native country and settle down in other one. Immigration processes can be caused by various reasons, beginning with the lack of money and ending with some natural phenomenon.

In the end of the 20th century, Jewish people started moving to the US.  During this time, more than 200, 000 Jews that had German origin began a big and prolonged immigration process in this country (Jonathan 512). This very movement had a great influence on the history of Jewish people’s lives and their development. Starting with the fact, that the movement caused foundation of many centers of Jewish nation, it led to changing the basis of Jewish religion. The main reasons that made people from Israel immigrate to the US were anti-Semitism that existed at those times on the European continent, the dissatisfaction with the life conditions, the wish to give their future generations better lives, and the desire to become reach and free (the American dream). Moreover, the US was better developed than European countries; the technical revolution resulted in the existence of modern vehicles.

Jewish people immigrated in big American cities – the most favorable of them was New York. It was because the nation did not want to be divided from their nearest and dearest, but to stay in touch with as much Jews as it is possible. That is why, their aim was only huge cities. There was one more reason why New York was the first city to live in. In the 19th century, here dressing textiles and dressing industries were the main working and money-giving branches. Jewish nation had a long-time experience in swing, so that they decided to immigrate particularly here. Moreover, at those times this city had already built a Jewish community, and newly come people could easily find people to communicate with.

In the 1870s, in Hawaii sugar industry’s development was at its height. In Japan, the situation was critical – the unemployment and economical crisis made its native population immigrate in the US, particularly in Hawaii. This people had to find a better place to live in, they selected Hawaii because they could work on sugar fields and keep their families. Most of immigrated people were hot young men – the former farmers. However, the working conditions in Hawaii at those times were very severe. The plantations were not under governmental, but under moneyed men’s legislation. It was up to them to decide whether they would hire a person or not; the working day was very long and at the end people were exhausted. Planters were carefully watching after their laboring men even when they did not work on the sugar field. The Japanese workers could not give up their job and leave their planters because at those times every working man had to sigh the 3- or 5-year contract, and this gave the planters right to jail those who ran away from them.

However, the Japanese immigrants in Hawaii were in a more advantageous position in comparison with Japanese immigrants in other states. It was because in that particular place no racial attack could be noticed, so the Japanese people lived free and had no fear that one day they would be hit or even killed for their origin. Moreover, Buddhist temples were situated directly on the sugar fields and during their work time Japanese people could go inside and have a minute to speak to their God.

Both Japanese and Jews had the common reasons to immigrate in the US. To begin with, it was a better place to live in where they could find a good job and feed themselves and their families. Moreover, the situation in their native countries was too bad; there were no normal life conditions and no working places because of the economic crisis. Although, there is a little difference between this two groups. Jews saw in the American country a place where they would not be judged for their religion, where no anti-Semitic movement could take place. Japanese people had no such a motive because their religion was never persecuted.

Referring to socio-political adaptation, the Jewish nation had the weather gauge of the Japanese one. To start with, Jewish people right after settling down in the US have begun to establish different social and economical organizations. They aimed to unite all their people together, and in such organization they could help each other and encourage in difficult life circumstances. There were also other organizations that lent Jewish people not only moral support, but also financial assistance. In such a way, poor and street people could go there and get something to eat and drink. Unfortunately, the fortune of Japanese people at those times was not so beneficial. As soon as this nation reached the continent, they had no choice but to work on private plantation owners and their rights were very strictly limited. Their live was under constant control; moreover, the Japanese immigrants could not change their working place.

The settlement of Jewish immigrants was situated in big cities – such as New York. It was chosen because in big cities of the US there was a lot of work, freedom and safety. For this nation the absence of anti-Semitism was the key point why exactly they wanted to settle there. On the European continent, they got tired because of racial discrimination, so in America they saw the only place where the Jewish nation could live without fear to be judged for their religion. Moreover, in this particular city (New York) Jews could find a good place to work – to work in dressing industry. This sphere was very close to them, they had a long-time experience, so that lots of Jews headed off to New York.

Japanese immigration in Hawaii was also very reasonable. They were experienced professionals in food-manufacturing industry, and particularly sugar fields attracted their attention. Here they could earn money in order to feed their nearest and dearest and not to die of hunger.

When the gender is taken into account, there could be mentioned some differences between these two immigration processes. Japanese people who settled down in Hawaii were dominantly men. It was because working on sugar fields was too tiring and exhausting, just a small group of women wanted to move there. However, the Jewish immigration in New York was another – here both male and female people lived and worked as the working sector was not too complicated. The life conditions in this city were also mush better than in the state of Hawaii, which gave the opportunity for people not only to live there, but also to bring up their children who got better future perspectives.

Nowadays, Jewish people have a very big influence on the American government. To begin with, they have a lot of places in the House of Representatives, even the post of Senator was once occupied by David Yulee who had Jewish origin (Maisel 153). During all history of their life on this continent, Jews occupied themselves with bank firms and banking system in general. A lot of very rich people in the US are Jews; they have developed their talent to take up commercial office up to this moment. Moreover, this nation appears to be good at academic skills and politics nowadays; that is why, so many representatives from these two spheres are Jewish people. Their ability to critical thinking is so good that Jewish people have a very big percentage part in getting a Nobel Prize in various subjects. Jews were the first people in the US who supported the Civil Rights Movement in this country. It resulted in the fact that racial discrimination in the US became forbidden. Moreover, anti-Semitism in the US is nowadays the thing of the past.

Japanese community, which is now living in the US and particularly in Hawaii, has influenced the whole development of the country. They have organized the restaurant and café sector on the highest level, and today so many places to hang your hat are made in the Oriental style with very unusual, but very tasty cuisine. This nation is very educated, so there are a lot of scholars of Japanese Americans (Zhao 89). As to religious aspect, the Japanese population that once settled down in the US are nowadays not the members of the Buddhist church, but they claim themselves to be Protestants or Catholics. Unfortunately, the life conditions and fast development of life itself have influenced their thinking and way of life greatly.

Each immigration process has its influence on the country it takes place in. No matter how long it lasts, but in the result the life of both nations is changed. Nowadays, the immigration processes are much wider, they can be noticed not only in the US, but on any other continent – even in Australia. The process of globalization makes nations exchange the cultures, the cuisine, and the way of life and gives the opportunity to be with each other in close contact. Everyone should respect the other people’s feelings and points of view, be tolerant and ready to listen to others. This will make the process of immigration in each country not so hard because when people leave their homes and try to find a better place to live in, they experience a very strong homesick feeling.

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