A dramatic number of child abuses have been occurring during all the human history. Many law-making and healthcare representatives draw the public attention to the problem of domestic violence, focusing on the rights of children as the prior issue of modern cultural practices. They highlight that the child, who has experienced abuse, will suffer from its negative consequences throughout the lifespan.
Child abuse can be referred to as any deed or failure to take action by a child’s parent or caretaker, which leads to fatal consequences, severe physical or emotional injuries. Child abuse may suggest sexual abuse and exploitation or any deed that may ruin child’s health (Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect 2014). Child abuse can be physical, psychological, and sexual.
Physical abuse can be referred to as any corporal force or brutality that leads to somatic injury, suffering, or disability. This type of abuse comprises violence, battery, and unsuitable constraint. Assessing child’s health, nurses should pay attention to physical and behavioral indicators confirming the act of domestic violence. Physical indicators include bruises, welts, burns, fractures, lacerations, abrasions, and abdominal and central nervous system injuries. Nurses should examine a child to be convinced that all the above-mentioned signs are absent. Bruises and belts may be found on body surfaces and soft tissues. To illustrate, these signs can be the result of flogging by a belt. Burns can have different causes. They can be left by cigarettes or electrical devices, such as irons. Nurses are to observe a patient to exclude the child having single or multiple fractures, rope burns, and damaged internal organs. Hematomas and hemorrhages are to be rejected (Sachs-Ericsson & Cromer, 2009, pp.170-175).
Behavioral indicators of potential physical abuse may include occurrence of negativism, sadness, annoyance, or solitariness. A child’s conduct may be destructive and aggressive towards surrounding people. A victim of physical abuse may experience problems with communication, permanently try to attract other people’s attention. Finally, nursing personnel may find signs of different delays in development.
Psychological abuse can be explained as the inclined application of mental or emotional torture. Threatening remarks, embarrassment, verbal or non-verbal offence may occur. Physical indicators of psychological abuse comprise somatic transformations and decline in physical development. Behavioral signs include difficulties in interacting with other people, anxiety, and low mood.
Sexual abuse can be referred to as any type of non-consensual physical contact. Rape, molestation, and other forms of sexual behavior belong to this category. Both boys and girls may be victims of sexual abuse. Physical signs of sexual abuse include vaginal opening measures above 4 mm (girls), bloody cloth, slack rectal tone, venereal infections, and others. Behavioral signs include low self-esteem, suicide attempts, depression, or masturbation.
The above-mentioned forms of child’s abuse can cause neurobiological and psychological illnesses, such as changes in mood, anxiety, and personality disorders. Moreover, a child, who has experienced abuse, may develop various diseases. Later, it can lead to poor mental and physical health, failed relationships, and unwillingness to marry, lack of basic social skills, and social isolation as a result. The situation aggravates with potential suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and physical inactivity. Being adult, victims of abuse may suffer from alcoholism and sexual difficulties (Arnow 2004, pp.10-15).
Examining children, nurses are to know the main peculiarities of normal and abnormal patterns of growth of children and teenagers. In fact, due proportion between child’s height, weight, and head circumference demonstrate that the person grows and develops following a normal pattern. In fact, the state of child’s health and the food he or she eats make an effect on the physical growth. Pathologic divergences, such as extremely light weight or short height testify to aberrations.
Symptoms, functional status, and risk in children and teenagers can be assesses, involving an evidence-based approach. This approach suggests the value, vigorousness, and methodical evidence on obstructing, evaluating, and treating targeted patient groups.
There are numerous factors causing child abuse. Childishness, unrealistic suppositions, poor social skills, poverty are among them. Abusive parents can represent all socioeconomic levels. Nevertheless, children face abuse in poor families more frequently.
In fact, family plays a crucial role in the psychological development of a child. Failing to cope with everyday stresses, parents may affect their children in a negative way. Teachers, justice staff, and physicians help parents bring up the children, by correcting destructive social behavior. In cases of maltreatment, the representatives of the state protect children. Youth treatment programs help children overcome the detrimental consequences of their being abused (Evidence-Based Practice 2015).
Experts often implement person-centered approach in their practice. This approach makes an accent on an individual as the key figure in decision-making (Murphy 2009). In Mia’s case, it is obvious that the child cannot get such serious injuries as the result of occasional falling. One may suggest that the fractured right femur, extensive swelling and bruising to the right thigh, oval-shaped bruises on the right calf can be results of physical abuse. Moreover, yellow bruises around her torso and on the side of her neck are supposed to be received prior to the reported accident as the result domestic violence. Therefore, the nurse is obliged to register all these health problems in details. Moreover, photographs of the child and its traumas should be taken and attached to the medical history and the report. The nurse should pay attention to physical and behavioral signs, such as anxiety and fear (Hatfield 2008, pp. 137-138).
Australia’s Parliament adopted mandatory reporting laws aimed at decreasing the risks of child abuses in the country. According to them, responsible personnel are obliged to investigate and report the authorities about their suspicions concerning potential cases of child abuse. Confidentiality is guaranteed. Nursing staff have a certain number of professional responsibilities if they suspect that abuse has occurred. In cases of ignoring this rule, health care experts are deprived of their nursing license (Hatfield 2008, p. 137).
Nevertheless, there are certain peculiarities in reporting about presumable abuses. According to Section 356 of the Children and Young People Act of 2008, the information about cases of sexual and significant physical abuses must be regarded and reported to the proper jurisdictions in the obligatory way. The information about minor abuses is directed to social agencies (Mandatory reporting of child abuse and neglect 2014).
To sum up, child abused have been frequently happening during all the history of human society. Nowadays, this problem is topical because of great attention of the world society to the human rights, and child rights, in particular.
Child abuse can be determined as any deed or failure to take action by a child’s parent or caretaker, which leads to fatal consequences, severe physical or emotional injuries. It can be physical, psychological, and sexual. The above-mentioned forms of child’s abuse can cause neurobiological and psychological illnesses, such as changes in mood, anxiety, and personality disorders. Moreover, a child, who has experienced abuse, may develop various diseases.
Examining children, nurses are to know the main peculiarities of normal and abnormal patterns of growth of children and teenagers.
Australia’s Parliament adopted mandatory reporting laws contributing to decreasing the risks of child abuses in the country. According to them, responsible personnel are obliged to investigate and report the authorities about their suspicions concerning potential cases of child abuse.
Nurses should make a complete observation of the child and document all the problems with its health. In Mia’s case, it is obvious that the child cannot get such serious injuries as the result of occasional falling. Therefore, a nurse is expected to make a complete observation of the child, give it the first aid, and document all the problems with its health. Under the above-mentioned circumstances, the nurse is obliged to inform the authorities about her suspicions about child abuse.